I wrote this some time ago, but it still seems particularly relevant in today’s climate.
At 11.30pm last night I had just brought some friends home from the airport when we heard the news from President Obama that Osama Bin Laden had been killed. Rejoicing broke out in streets all over the US.
I found myself starting to do a high five with one of my friends, but caught myself with hand in mid-air, wondering: “What am I actually high-fiving about?” Am I rejoicing here because a living being has been violently killed, and is that ever ok, even if a person is very deluded and has engaged in evil actions? Or am I relieved because I think the world is now a safer place? Or am I feeling satisfied because I think justice has been done? And are any of these points of view valid or not, and, if they are, are they still perhaps missing the point a bit? (Amazing what can go through your mind in just the few seconds it takes for an aborted high five!)
The brother of a 9.11 victim epressed this dilemma quite well when he thoughtfully said:
“Scenes of jubilation across the US should not be seen as people celebrating someone’s death but as a recognition that everyone feels that capturing or killing Bin Laden was something that needed to be done.”
Do you think killing is ever “needed to be done”? In Buddhism, if we take another’s life out of a deluded motivation such as anger, pride or attachment, then we create very bad karma. But there are times when killing can be done with a skillful motivation. For example, a story is told of Buddha Shakyamuni in one of his previous lifetimes as a Bodhisattva when he was the captain of a ship with 500 people onboard. With his clairvoyance he saw that one of the passengers planned on killing everyone, and to prevent this happening Buddha killed that terrorist – thus preventing the death of 499 people and saving the terrorist from creating some very terrible karma.
So, I hope that this is people’s motivation, to avert a threat to others and not to seek vengeance out of anger. Because, truthfully, the only real enemy of living beings is their delusions, especially their anger, of which vengeance is a part. At times like this it becomes clear to me whether I actually believe this or not. What happened on 9.11 was despicable and evil, and the suffering people experienced upon losing their loved ones all too terrible. Since then, others also have suffered grievously due to acts of terror and other violence. It is very easy to feel very angry about all of this. I can’t even imagine how hard it has been for those who have been directly affected and I will not pretend to speak for them. They have all my respect and deep sympathy. But from a Buddhist point of view, I want to know what is the best way to view all this, to deal with all this, so as to restore sanity and peace of mind?
Bin Laden’s body has been shot through the head, but have we killed his delusions, or ours? Have we destroyed his negative karma, or ours? If we have not, any respite will be temporary.
So what about the feeling of justice or closure, is that real? Also, what is the line here between justice and vengeance? Some people are saying they are experiencing some closure and healing today, and I am glad that they are experiencing any degree of relief from a painful ten years, they deserve it. But do the causes of complete and lasting closure and freedom lie deeper?
If the closure is based on vengeance, is that really closure? If it works, fine… but if it doesn’t? After people have been put to death in the electric chair, for example, you often read reports of the victims’ families saying it didn’t help as much as they thought it would and that they are still disappointed and angry. This is perhaps not surprising if we understand how anger functions — vengeance is part of anger and therefore can never bring peace of mind. Those who report having found peace and genuine closure, who are able to move on with their lives, are usually those who have managed to find forgiveness in their hearts for the killer of their loved ones, thinking for example “they know not what they do”. (This Christian teaching seems similar to me to Buddha’s teaching that people being victimized by their inner enemies of delusions and we cannot blame the victim for the fault of their enemy.) Forgiveness is part of love, and love is always a peaceful mind.
Buddhas never lose their love for anyone as they understand a very important thing about us: we are not our delusions. Geshe Kelsang says in Eight Steps to Happiness:
“Buddhas see that delusions have many faults but they never see people as faulty, because they distinguish between people and their delusions. If someone is angry we think, ‘He is a bad and angry person’, whereas Buddhas think, ‘He is a suffering being afflicted with the inner disease of anger.’….
It is because they distinguish between delusions and persons that Buddhas are able to see the faults of delusions without ever seeing a single fault in any sentient being. Consequently their love and compassion for sentient beings never diminish. Failing to make this distinction, we, on the other hand, are constantly finding fault with other people but do not recognize the faults of delusions, even those within our own mind.”
If I am ever in the incredibly difficult situation of having lost my loved ones to random, evil violence, I hope I will be able to remember this and forgive. I guess you don’t know until you experience it yourself.
As for “justice”, leaving aside the fact that hundreds of thousands of people have died since 9.11 in this pursuit of “justice”, how is justice actually served here, what is justice in fact? Is it eye for an eye, or turn the other cheek and love thy neighbor? The President of the Federal Law Enforcement, understandably upset, has drawn a line in the sand: “I would say ‘May God have mercy on his hideous soul’, but I don’t think he has one.” And, judging by news reports, even church leaders are conflicted about their reactions. One justified the killing:
“He who sheds man’s blood, by man his blood be shed.” (Genesis 9.6).
I have a question about this though: could this not be just as much talking about the law of karma rather than an injunction to kill?
Another said, “‘Turn the other cheek’ doesn’t apply here as it is to do with insult rather than self-defense.’ But isn’t there rather a blurry line between insult and self-defense when you’re being slapped on the cheek?!
Another said “terror attacks are not even in the category of forgiveness”; in which case what is?
To me, Buddha’s teachings on the delusions and karma make all this so much clearer. It doesn’t mean that choosing the right course of action is not agonizing (and who would want to be a politician in times like this?), but it seems to give some signposts such that we at least make sure we are motivated in the best possible way while we eliminate threats, and try not to be angrily blaming others for all our suffering.
I suppose what I’m thinking is that while it is of course a good idea to eliminate the threat of Bin Laden out of a desire to protect, we still should not be deceived into thinking that Bin Laden is the source of all our suffering and problems. Our actual enemies are the delusions. They are what I really want to capture dead or alive. Dead, ideally, but even if I capture them alive by recognizing them for what they are, I am also quarantining them.
As the famous Buddhist teacher Shantideva (AD 687-763) says in Guide to the Bodhisattva’s Way of Life:
“The inner enemies of hatred, attachment and so forth
Do not have arms and legs,
Nor do they have courage or skill;
So how have they made me their slave?
No other type of enemy
Can remain for as long a time
As can the enduring foes of my delusions,
For they have no beginning and no apparent end.”
I think its worth remembering that Osama Bin Laden may be temporarily incapacitated, but his mental continuum still exists and in future lives his negative karma and ours will continue to play out.
And in the meantime, while we all have uncontrolled minds and negative karma, how can we ever confidently say that we are safe from the horrors of terrorism? Al Qaeda may be weakened for now (though Bin Laden’s deputy Al-Zawahiri is ready to take over), but news reports say that “retaliation is expected” (wait for sad reports of more devastated families) and this is an “opportunity for other Islamic organizations to step up.”
I’m not trying to rain on everyone’s parade! But I have to say that I would prefer a more cosmic parade. Imagine if those scenes of rejoicing were celebrating the death of the real enemy of living beings, our delusions?! And the sense of the country coming together – imagine if we understood that our real collective enemy was anger, attachment and ignorance, and we cheered every time someone somewhere succeeded in destroying these enemies?!
One 9.11 widow said: “My 12-year-old daughter will wake tomorrow to a safer world, hopefully a more peaceful world.” I hear her. This is what we all want for her child, for everyone’s children. How wonderful it would be if we were moving faster in that direction by making effort to destroy the actual causes of danger and terror? As my teacher Geshe Kelsang says, anger is the real cause of the wars in which so many people have died.
If we don’t recognize the real enemies of living beings — the unpeaceful, uncontrolled states of mind that we call “delusions” — then we will make no effort to eliminate them. So by all means we should protect each other in practical ways as much as we can, with a good motivation, as Buddha did when he killed that terrorist; but not at the expense of ignoring the real enemies of all living beings. That is, if we are interested in a genuine or lasting peace and freedom, which we are.
“Returning hate for hate multiplies hate, adding deeper darkness to a night already devoid of stars. Darkness cannot drive out darkness: only light can do that. Hate cannot drive out hate: only love can do that”
Martin Luther King, Jr.
The death of Osama Bin Laden has actually increased my resolve to help everyone, including all the victims of violence, by overcoming my delusions and becoming a powerful Bodhisattva ASAP. Shantideva can have the last word:
“Out of anger, worldly people who are filled with pride will not sleep
Until they have destroyed those who cause them even the slightest temporary harm.
In the same way, I will not abandon my efforts
Until this inner foe of mine is directly and definitely destroyed.”
If the U.S had not rushed into a pointless war aginst Afghanistan, one of the poorest countries on Earth, they would have retained the sympathy of the World.
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I totally agree with everything you have said and as always it is very clear, however i would have also added that Buddha showed the example of the power of his loving kindness to Anguli Mala when he was rampaging and killing, like Osama, and instead of showing anger or fear he showed him love.
This is the example we all need in these times, world rulers that have the courage of true love to face up to terrorists without fear. We can start with this kind of loving kindness at home, what real heroic strength and cause for celebration would that be!
Thank you for reminding us of Angulimala (Mike also tells the story below in his comment). It is an important example from the Buddhist scriptures and teaches us a lot.
As Geshe-la said once:
“Love is the real nuclear bomb that destroys enemies.”
And, as you say, it is the “real heroic strength”.
Wonderful! We just need more people thinking like this.
Thanks Elma. Sometimes when I think that isolated good thoughts in a few people’s minds won’t change much, I remember that every time we have a positive thought, we naturally draw others up with us, because we are all interconnected in a web of mutual dependence (everything we are and have comes from others literally) and every action therefore counts. We are not isolated individuals — independent, solitary, moreorless useless! If you pick up one corner of a fishing net, for example, the rest naturally comes up with it. Each of us can change our world.
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I think it was in Thich Nhat Hahn’s book Old Path, White Clouds, that I read about Angulimala (he had killed 999 people & was about to kill Buddha himself). Buddha managed to pursuade Angulimala to give up his path of murder & to become a Buddhist monk. The King of the region turned up with a large group of soldiers and asked if anyone had seen him. Buddha asked why he wanted to find this man, and the King replied it was so he could stop him from harming anyone else. Buddha asked the King if he would be happy if he achieved this aim, and of course the King replied he would. Buddha asked further, if he would be as happier if he could do so without any further bloodshed: the King replied again, that he would. Buddha then explained that he had just ordained Angulimala, who had promised to give up his evil deeds – and the King offered to be a sponsor for him. Problem solved!!
Later, a group of people realised who this new monk was, and beat him savagely, almost to death. Angulimala didn’t retaliate, even though he could easily had overcome all his attackers (he was a powerful warrior). Instead, he saw the beating as part of his purification practice. He apparently attained liberation in that same lifetime (I think). Buddha has a different approach to solving problems.
To illustrate how easily a deluded mind can be deceived, I had an experience a couple of years ago that helped me. I had watched a series of documentaries and a drama-doc all about sex trafficking of innocent young girls into this country and the terrible lives they led afterwards. it sickened me and angered me more than just about anything I had experienced before, & I dwelled on this for some time. my mind grew so angry that I genuinely considered gathering a like-minded bunch of people to infiltrate the gangs, gather intelligence and then assassinate the perpetrators, who all appeared to be cold-hearted, callous and greedy individuals who did not deserve to live. I visualised myself shooting them in the head and ridding the World of people who did not deserve the moniker ‘human’.
Fortunately I found myself sitting opposite Gen-la Losang at lunch, and shared this idea with him. He quietly but firmly said, “The quickest way to hell Michael! the quickest way to hell”.
These few words transformed my mind. I would never had got round to doing what I wanted to do, and would certainly have failed even if I had tried, but I realised what destructive, terrible, negative thoughts I was nurturing. It made me think of why these people do what they do – what is their background? What terrible things have happened to them to make them behave in such an inhumane way? It made me wonder if there was another way to solve this problem. One that didn’t turn me into the thing I hated most, and resulted in aeons in hell.
Really good comment Mike, thank you so much!
Thanks for the Angulimala story. I’ve wondered about that and how it could translate to our modern way of doing things … for example, having more rehabilitation in prisons.
And I’m so glad you shared that about the trafficking, as it makes me crazy as well when I think about it in the wrong way. Such a good illustration!
Thank you for saying so well what needed to be said.
Thank you Carol.
And thank you also for a great quote in this newspaper article: http://jacksonville.com/news/metro/2011-05-04/story/religious-leaders-warn-gloating-over-bin-laden-death
When Osama Bin Laden was born, he obviously didn’t think that his life would come to such a sorry end, being shot through the head by American forces. He didn’t think that so many millions would rejoice in his death and view him as the enemy of free peoples. It’s so sad – this is what delusions bring us to. And doubtless there are causes for what Bin Laden did to others – his anger had a source which was possibly the actions and culture of others, or his perception of them. Delusions and contaminated karma are the real enemy and, as you say, for as long as we have not destroyed them, any feeling of triumph is deluded and short lived.
Pagpa, you can always be trusted to hit the nail on the head.
I THINK THERE WAS SOME THOUGHT WENT INTO THIS.
I REMEMBER GEN THARCHIN ONCE SAID THAT EVEN HITLER WOULD BECOME A BUDDHA ONE DAY, THAT IS OUR POTENTIAL. i LOOKED AT A PHOTO OF HITLER AFTER THAT AND ALL THE HARDNESS IN MY MIND HAD GONE, I COULD SEE SOMETHING NOT EVIL FOR A WHILE, I DIDN’T EVEN KNOW HITLER.
I HAVE MUCH WORK TO DO. IF I WANT TO BENEFIT OTHERS, I NEED THE WISDOM AND COMPASSION TO DO IT. AT PRESENT I CAN PRAY AND DO MY BEST. THERE ARE NONE OF US WHO HAVE NOT COMMITTED AN ACTION OF RETRIBUTION, OTHERWISE WE WOULD NOT BE LIVING IN A WORLD FULL OF BLAIRS, BUSHES, CHEYNEYS, BIN LADENS, HITLERS, HUSSEINS ETC ETC.
WE WOULD BE IN THE LAND OF THE DAKINIS. WELL WE DO HAVE SOMETHING TO LOOK FORWARD TO AND WORK TOWARDS.
Thank you Gakyi. There are so many ways to look at people, some ways cause delusions, some cause love, compassion, and wisdom. Regardless of our deluded actions, no one’s Buddha nature can be destroyed any more than clouds can destroy the sky. Therein lies all hope.
Thank you – this kind of situation makes it very apparent that we can never beat samsara by playing it at it’s own game, because the nature of the game is deceptive. It will always continue and another ‘enemy’ will appear from the shadows of the previous one and continuously back us into corners. Who wants to live in a world where the only apparent option is to take a life? Lets get out of this nightmare of samsara eh? It’s like a hall of mirrors – we keep smashing the reflections of our enemies but we never actually touch the enemy itself. Imagine a world without enemies; internal or external. How wonderful that will be!
I’ll be thinking of Bin Laden in our monthly Powa (transference of consciousness prayers) tomorrow night. If the murderer Angullimala could change and attain enlightenment then so can Bin Laden. As Geshe Kelsang says “In the heart of even the cruellest and most degenerate person exists the potential for limitless love, compassion, and wisdom.”
Your kindness and forgiveness is even more appreciated given that you were directly affected by the events of 9.11, in the subsequent death of your brother in the war that followed. Thank you.
Those of you who haven’t seen her article, it is beautiful:
It’s more likely that most people will be happy that he is dead simply out of rage or hatred. Ugly. They are the bigger fools and i feel the unbearable ignorance that will become them.
I found myself saddened, like i was when Saddam Hussein was killed. So many people not understanding the effect they were having to their own minds.
Yes there are times when people need to be killed for the benefit of others but no-one is beyond redemption or forgiveness.
What is to blame for all this and why does this appear to my mind? A beginning question to ask ourself before we start becoming ugly.
We could start with the effect and work back to find a cause with so many contributing factors and limitless things so we can see the bigger picture. Of course, what we actually then find is an infinite stream of actions. Viewing things in this way we see the bigger picture.
Hi James, I agree that as soon as we look at the bigger picture, our delusions start to abate.
However, I think it is also good to look at the bigger picture of those who are suffering rage or hatred. Yes, they are fools, but so am I a lot of the time, and for all I know I might be deeply conflicted if I was in their shoes. They will have all sorts of causes and conditions for their delusions, some of them may even have been directly affected by the actions of Bin Laden in the death of those they hold most dear. For every situation like this, there are so many stories to tell, and so it is hard to judge others, we can only judge ourselves.